Category Archives: Networking


To test about website certificate, cipher suites, TLS version we can use website: Advertisements

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HTTP 1.1 (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

HTTP is a stateless protocol. HTTP request have following components: 1>Method 2>Path 3>Version: Version format is major.minor 4> Headers Example: Following screenshot have method as get, path as “” version as HTTP/1.1 HTTP response have following component: 1>Version 2> Status … Continue reading

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Dead peer detection RFC 3706

DPD overcome shortcoming of keepalives and heartbeats. Keepalive and heartbeat should be exchanged on regular interval of time however with DPD it is not like that. If there is ongoing valid IPSec traffic between the two peers then there is … Continue reading

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NAT-T in IKE RFC 3947

NAT-T (NAT Traversal): Why we need NAT-T?: If the IPSec peer are behind some NAT device then the NAT device will not be able to do NAT because ESP packet doesnot have any L4 port so with the help of … Continue reading

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IP 791 TCP 793 ISAKMP 2408 IKE 2409 NAT-T 3947

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IPSec provides: Integrity, Authentication, Confidentiality. Integrity means that received data is not altered by someone this is done by hashing. Authentication means per should provide its identity to prove what he claims to be is correct this is done by … Continue reading

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UDP (User datagram protocol)

+——–+——–+——–+——–+ |     Source      |   Destination   | |      Port       |      Port       | +——–+——–+——–+——–+ |                 |                 | |     Length      |    Checksum     | +——–+——–+——–+——–+ UDP psuedo header +——–+——–+——–+——–+ |          source address           | +——–+——–+——–+——–+ |        destination address        | +——–+——–+——–+——–+ |  zero  |protocol|   UDP length    … Continue reading

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